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THANH HIỆP : Chật vật giữ nghề ở xứ người: Hết lòng với hậu thế

03/11/2015 22:07

Dù xa quê nhà nhưng trong tim mỗi người Việt vẫn cố gắng vượt qua sự chật vật để giữ nghề, nuôi nghề và truyền nghề

 

Phần đông các nghệ sĩ (NS) nổi tiếng ở Việt Nam sang định cư tại các nước châu Âu nay đều tuổi cao, sức yếu. Biết mình không còn khả năng đứng trên sân khấu lâu dài, nhiều NS tâm huyết với nghệ thuật dân tộc nghĩ đến việc truyền nghề cho hậu thế.

Lấy công việc dạy làm niềm vui

NS Thanh Bạch, Bạch Lê gần như giã từ sân khấu. Ông bà từ chối tham gia biểu diễn rất nhiều sô do cộng đồng người Việt ở Pháp tổ chức. NS Thanh Bạch cho biết với ông, được diễn lại 2 vở “Đào Tam Xuân” và “Câu thơ yên ngựa” trong chương trình “Gìn vàng giữ ngọc” do sân khấu IDECAF thực hiện cách đây 2 năm đã là một dấu ấn tuyệt đẹp, để ông bà thỏa mãn rời sân khấu. “Không dám nói bỏ nghề, chỉ vì tuổi về chiều muốn dành hết thời gian để lo cho các con. Vừa qua, vợ tôi về Việt Nam để thay em trai là NS Thành Lộc chăm sóc mẹ vợ tôi – NS Huỳnh Mai, vợ của cố NSND Thành Tôn, trong thời gian Thành Lộc sang Mỹ diễn kịch, do vậy chỉ còn mình tôi phải lo cho các con việc đưa rước học hành, chăm sóc miếng ăn giấc ngủ. Cũng nhớ nghề lắm nhưng đành phải nói lời tạm biệt. Nhưng niềm hạnh phúc là có nhiều em diễn viên trẻ mời tôi hướng dẫn nghề, nhìn các em chịu học, chịu tìm tòi sáng tạo nghề hát trên xứ người, vợ chồng tôi rất vui” – NS Thanh Bạch xúc động nói.

Vợ chồng NS Minh Tâm, Tài Lương cũng bớt nhận sô diễn. Cả 2 thi thoảng xuất hiện trong các chương trình đờn ca tài tử hoặc hát tại nhà hàng, tiệc cưới của các thân hữu. “Lớn tuổi rồi, đảm nhận vai diễn với thời lượng tập tuồng cập rập như vậy có khi mình sẽ làm ảnh hưởng đến tập thể. Nên việc tham gia diễn nguyên vở tuồng với vợ chồng tôi hiện nay rất khó. Tuy nhiên, đàn em nào muốn học nghề, muốn lắng nghe sự chỉ dẫn thì vợ chồng tôi sẵn sàng” – NS Minh Tâm nói.

chat-vat-giu-nghe-o-xu-nguoi-het-long-voi-hau-the
Vợ chồng nghệ sĩ Minh Tâm, Tài Lương trong chương trình văn nghệ phục vụ cộng đồng

Đời sống văn nghệ của người Việt tại một số nước châu Âu đã có những tiến triển rõ nét khi có sự giao thoa giữa âm nhạc dân tộc với văn nghệ dân gian. Điều đáng ghi nhận là thế hệ NS đi trước tiếp tục làm tấm gương sáng cho đàn em noi theo.

Hai ban văn nghệ Nam Giao (Bỉ) và Hội đàn tranh chi nhánh Phượng Ca (Na Uy) được xem là 2 chiếc nôi nghệ thuật ươm mầm nhiều tài năng Việt. NS Đoàn Vinh là học trò của GS nhạc sĩ Phương Oanh, ban đầu học đàn tranh, sau đó đứng ra lập ban văn nghệ Nam Giao, hằng năm tổ chức những chương trình văn nghệ phục vụ kiều bào tại Bỉ. Chỉ là đạo diễn tay ngang nhưng chị đã tạo dấu ấn đậm nét với cộng đồng khán giả kiều bào tại Bỉ qua các chương trình văn nghệ tôn vinh âm nhạc dân tộc, sân khấu cải lương do chị đạo diễn. Riêng Hội Âm nhạc dân tộc Phượng Ca tại Na Uy của NS Phi Thuyền đã lưu dấu rất nhiều với cộng đồng các quốc gia Bắc Âu, nơi có người Việt sinh sống. Chị được chính phủ Na Uy hỗ trợ kinh phí để tiến đến tổ chức Nhạc hội đàn tranh tại quốc gia phồn thịnh này.

Khó mấy cũng làm

Khi tôi cùng ngồi chung chuyến xe sang một số nước châu Âu với 2 NS Đoàn Vinh và Phi Thuyền, câu chuyện giữ nghề, dạy nghề của 2 chị khiến tôi xúc động. Cả 2 chị đều đã trải qua rất nhiều khó khăn để giữ nghề, làm nhiều công việc để nuôi nghề. Chuyện NS Phi Thuyền “bỏ ống heo” khoản tiền dành dụm để mỗi quý đập ống heo mua vé máy bay mời GS – nhạc sĩ Phương Oanh từ Pháp sang Na Uy lưu lại vài tuần để dạy nâng cao phương pháp học đàn tranh, nghe mà xúc động. “Chi tiêu ở Na Uy đắt đỏ lắm. Các khoản tiền bảo hiểm phải đóng, tiền phí dịch vụ công cộng, tiền trả góp mua nhà, đóng thuế thu nhập…, lương nhân viên vi tính của tôi chẳng còn dư bao nhiêu nên muốn học nghề và muốn các học trò của mình được đào tạo nâng cao thì phải tích cóp dành dụm tiền” – NS Phi Thuyền kể.

NS Đoàn Vinh (bìa phải) và NS Elisa (Pháp), GS Phương Oanh, nhà báo Thanh Hiệp tại Pháp.
NS Đoàn Vinh (bìa phải) và NS Elisa (Pháp), GS Phương Oanh, nhà báo Thanh Hiệp tại Pháp.

Lớp đàn tranh của NS Phi Thuyền có đến 100 học viên đang theo học, các em đến từ khắp nơi trên đất nước Na Uy, mỗi tuần học 2 buổi. Các em di chuyển bằng tàu điện, xe buýt và ô tô, có em đến học phải vượt mấy trăm cây số. Nhóm biểu diễn đàn tranh của NS Phi Thuyền cũng đã từng được mời sang Ý biểu diễn, được khán giả kiều bào tại Roma khen ngợi. Không chỉ cần mẫn dạy học trò, NS Phi Thuyền còn dạy 2 con nhạc cụ dân tộc: Tiến Duy (đàn tranh, sến, bầu) và Uyên My (thổi sáo trúc). Con trai chị hồi tháng 8 vừa qua đã đến Úc tham gia Đại hội âm nhạc truyền thống thế giới lần 2.

NS Phi Thuyền cho biết chị đang ôm ấp dự án tổ chức Nhạc hội đàn tranh Việt Nam tại Na Uy. “Dù xa quê nhà nhưng trong tim mỗi người Việt vẫn cố gắng vượt qua sự chật vật để giữ nghề, nuôi nghề và truyền nghề” – NS Phi Thuyền chia sẻ.

Làm hướng dẫn viên “nuôi” văn nghệ

Ở Na Uy còn có ca sĩ Lê Vỹ và Minh Thy, cả 2 có giọng hát thật truyền cảm, thường xuyên tham gia biểu diễn với Hội Việt Nam Fyn nhằm tổ chức những chương trình văn nghệ từ thiện, góp tiền giúp đỡ những người bất hạnh ở Việt Nam. Nghệ sĩ Đoàn Vinh đã từng đưa con gái về Việt Nam học đàn tranh do NGƯT Phạm Thúy Hoan và TS Nguyễn Thị Hải Phượng dạy. Hiện nay, chị đã nghỉ hưu, lấy nghề hướng dẫn viên du lịch để “nuôi” văn nghệ; vừa lái xe kiêm hướng dẫn viên du lịch và cả đầu bếp cho du khách Việt Nam.

Vợ chồng ca sĩ Minh Thy (Na Uy), ca sĩ Nhã Ý (Đan Mạch) và nhà báo Thanh Hiệp trong chương trình Dạ vũ mùa thu tại Vejle - Đan Mạch
Vợ chồng ca sĩ Minh Thy (Na Uy), ca sĩ Nhã Ý (Đan Mạch) và nhà báo Thanh Hiệp trong chương trình Dạ vũ mùa thu tại Vejle – Đan Mạch

Cứ mỗi dịp đưa đoàn du lịch đi, chị lại có tiền gửi về Việt Nam giúp trẻ em mồ côi và đặt may trang phục, đặt làm đạo cụ cho những suất diễn văn nghệ phục vụ cộng đồng.

“Tấm lòng của cô Vinh thật lớn, học trò được cô xem như là con cháu trong gia đình. Với cô, châu Âu giống như một ngôi làng, cô đi hoài nên thuộc làu đường đi; vượt cả ngàn cây số, dù mỏi mệt vẫn mang đàn tranh ra đàn và hát. Truyền nghề và truyền luôn ngọn lửa đam mê, cô Vinh là một người giữ bền hơi ấm của âm nhạc dân tộc Việt Nam tại Bỉ” – TS âm nhạc Nguyễn Thị Hải Phượng nhận xét.

 Nhà báo Thanh Hiệp và nhóm Favic - những người nước ngoài yêu mến âm nhạc Việt, theo học hát dân ca Việt Nam do GS Phương Oanh và NS Đoàn Vinh hướng dẫn

Nhà báo Thanh Hiệp và nhóm Favic – những người nước ngoài yêu mến âm nhạc Việt, theo học hát dân ca Việt Nam do GS Phương Oanh và NS Đoàn Vinh hướng dẫn

 .Ns Đoàn Vinh, GSTS Trần Quang Hải, Nhà báo Thanh Hiệp giới thiệu với người Pháp cây đàn bầu, một trong những nhạc cụ độc đáo của Việt Nam.

.Ns Đoàn Vinh, GSTS Trần Quang Hải, Nhà báo Thanh Hiệp giới thiệu với người Pháp cây đàn bầu, một trong những nhạc cụ độc đáo của Việt Nam.

NS Phi Thuyền, Tiến sĩ Nguyễn Thị Hải Phượng, NS Isabella (Pháp), GSTS Trần Quang Hải, GS Phương Oanh tại Pháp
NS Phi Thuyền, Tiến sĩ Nguyễn Thị Hải Phượng, NS Isabella (Pháp), GSTS Trần Quang Hải, GS Phương Oanh tại Pháp
Bài và ảnh: Thanh Hiệp

Un article de Wikipédia, l’encyclopédie libre : Musique vietnamienne

Musique vietnamienne

Huê Musiques du monde Ca trù

Un article de Wikipédia, l’encyclopédie libre.

La musique vietnamienne est une synthèse originale des influences chinoise, indienne, indonésienne, occidentale et bouddhique.

Elle est pentatonique et marquée par l’improvisation et l’intonation de la langue vietnamienne, ainsi que par une certaine mélancolie dans les choix harmoniques (accords mineurs) et les thèmes chantés. Il existe par ailleurs des différences marquées entre le Nord et le Sud, et entre les zones montagneuses et les plaines côtières. S’il existe encore une musique savante, la musique folklorique est particulièrement développée dans tout le pays.

Musique traditionnelle

La musique traditionnelle est extrêmement diverse selon les régions du pays. Il s’agit d’une musique modale avec deux modes (dieu) principaux :

  • Bac, (« nord ») est de caractère joyeux.
  • Nam, (« sud ») est de caractère triste.

Lors de l’exécution d’une pièce, une longue introduction instrumentale (dao ou rao) permet à l’auditeur de se familiariser avec le mode avant de jouer les morceaux principaux, à la manière de l’alap du râga indien.

Le bouddhisme vietnamien a une musique vocale très riche née au XIXe siècle, en bénéficiant de l’influence de la musique de cour. On distingue trois traditions réservées aux rituels : celle du Nord, celle du Centre avec trois styles de prière (la psalmodie tùng, le cantique de louanges tæn et la sollicitation th‹nh ; un ensemble instrumental les accompagne, notamment lors de la cérémonie Khai Kinh ou « ouverture des textes sacrés » et celle du Sud.

Nhac cung dinh

Le nhac cung dinh est la musique de Cour (quan nhạc, nha nhai ou nhạc dai noi) de Huê joués sur deux ensembles disparates jusqu’au XXe siècle :

Dai nhạc

Le dai nhạc (« grande musique ») pratiquait la liturgie bouddhiste depuis le XIIIe siècle avec de 9 à 24 instruments.

Nhã nhạc

Le nhã nhạc (« musique élégante ») ou tieu nhạc (« petite musique »), avec de 9 à 14 instruments, basée sur huit répertoires différents fixés par Luong Dang depuis le XVe siècle. Pouvait jouer des musiques autres que celles de cour.

Ensemble traditionnel.
Ensemble traditionnel.
  • Musiques rituelles :
    • Giao nhạc, musique de l’Esplanade du ciel exécutée à l’occasion du sacrifice au Ciel et à la Terre.
    • Mieu nhạc, musique des temples, exécutée au temple de Confucius et aux temples des Souverains.
    • Ngu tu nhạc, musique des cinq sacrifices.
    • Cuu nhut nguyêt giao trung nhạc, musique pour le secours au Soleil et à la Lune en cas d’éclipse.
    • Dai trieu nhạc, musique des grandes audiences.
    • Thuong trieu nhạc, musique des simples audiences.
  • Musiques de divertissement :
    • Dai yen cuu tâu nhạc, musique des grands banquets.
      Joueur de vièle
      Joueur de vièle
    • Cung trung chi nhạc, musique de divertissement du palais.

Hát chầu văn

Le hát chầu văn ou hát văn ou chầu văn est une musique spirituelle jouée pour invoquer les esprits durant les cérémonies de possession du culte dong bong. Très rythmée, elle recherche la transe, et est chantée par l’un des musiciens qui l’accompagnent à la vièle dan nhi ou au luth dan nguyet. Avant 1986, le gouvernement vietnamien le réprimait ainsi que les autres formes d’expression religieuse. Depuis, le genre a été revitalisé par des musiciens comme Phạm Văn Tỵ.

Nhạc le

Le nhạc le est une musique cérémonielle liée à la cour de Huê. D’origine chinoise, elle a influencé le dai tai tu en devenant populaire.

Ensemble de nhạc dân tộc cải biên
Ensemble de nhạc dân tộc cải biên

Nhạc dân tộc cải biên

Le nhạc dân tộc cải biên est une forme de musique traditionnelle apparue après la création du Conservatoire de musique d’Hanoï en 1956. La musique traditionnelle est transcrite selon la notation musicale occidentale, tandis que des instruments et des éléments de l’harmonie occidentale sont ajoutés. Le nhạc tộc cải biên est souvent critiqué par les puristes pour cette approche du son vietnamien.

Ca trù

Ca trù
Ca trù
Article détaillé : Ca trù.

Le ca trù (ou hát ả đào) est une forme de musique du nord du pays, avec un répertoire composé de chants cultuels, de rivalité ou de divertissement. Il n’y a pas de mélodie fixe car elle varie en fonction de la langue à tons. Cette musique populaire qui aurait été créée par Ả Đào, une chanteuse qui aurait charmé « l’ennemi » avec sa voix tandis qu’elle frappe une planchette de bois avec une baguette, accompagnée par un luth ou un tambour et souvent dansé aussi. La plupart des chanteurs du genre restent des jeunes femmes. Dans les années 1980, le genre a été revitalisé par le relâchement de la répression gouvernementale.

Ca huê

Le ca huê est une ancienne forme de musique de chambre aristocratique liée au divertissement au centre du pays. Le dan huê ou nhạc huế en est la musique, datant du XVIIe siècle. Il est interprété par une chanteuse accompagnée d’un ensemble de trois ou cinq instruments à cordes (luths, cithare et vièles : Ngu Tuyêt : les cinq parfaits) jouant sur les modes bac et nam.

Dan tai tu

Le dan tai tu ou nhạc tài tử est l’équivalent des précédents pour le sud du pays depuis le XIXe siècle. Musique de divertissement destinée aux « amateurs », elle use des mêmes modes mais en y instillant des nuances de caractère sentimental, correspondantes à des états émotionnels. Principalement instrumentale et improvisée, elle se joue avec les cordes dàn tranh, ty ba, dan kim, dan tam, dan co et les percussions song lang.

Musique d’opéra et de théâtre

Le théâtre vietnamien est fortement influencé par l’opéra chinois. Les principaux genres sont le hát tuồng, le hát chèo et le Hát cải lương. Ces formes ne sont plus très populaires. Le genre roi nuoc a récemment regagné la faveur du public.

Hát chèo

Le hát chèo (« chant comique ») est un théâtre populaire apparu au Xe siècle dans le delta du fleuve Rouge, au nord du pays, il est considéré comme la plus ancienne forme d’opéra vietnamien existante. Les histoires sont souvent des légendes populaires. La musique est jouée à l’aide de flûtes, de cordes (dan nguyêt, dàn tranh, nhi, liu et ho) et de percussions, par les phuong, des troupes semi-professionnelles, mais le gouvernement a entrepris de sauvegarder ce patrimoine considéré alors comme de seconde zone.

Hát tuồng

Le hát tuong ou hát bôi, est un théâtre classique de cour importé de Chine au XIVe siècle. Il servait initialement à divertir la noblesse et l’armée avant d’être adapté pour des troupes itinérantes au XIXe siècle, devenant très proche de l’opéra chinois. Les histoires sont souvent historiques. Comme le cheo, le genre utilise des personnages types reconnaissables par leurs maquillages et leurs costumes. Les six musiciens jouent des cordes, des vents et le tambour de bataille.

Múa rối nước
Múa rối nước

Hát Cải lương

Comparé au tuồng et au chèo, le cải lương est un opéra rénové reste encore populaire. Il apparaît au XIIe siècle et traite de thèmes à la fois historiques et contemporains. Il a été adapté au début du XXe siècle, aux innovations modernes et à l’influence française, et peut par exemple inclure des guitares électriques. L’accompagnement est joué par un nhac tai tu notamment. C’est une forme complexe et partiellement improvisée de musique de chambre proche du dan tai tu, musique des « amateurs », du sud du pays.

Múa rối nước

Les múa rối nước (marionnettes sur eau) sont une forme d’art originale apparue au Viêt Nam au Xe siècle. Le spectacle prend place sur une mare derrière un rideau en bambou peint, avec des marionnettes actionnées par des mécanismes complexes de perches et de fils. La musique est principalement constituée de percussions.

Hẩm
Hẩm

Musique folklorique

Il existe un grand nombre de musiques régionales en vertu de la diversité géographique et ethnique du pays.

Le ngâm tho est la poésie chantée folklorique incorporée dans le théâtre et devenue une forme urbaine de musique de chambre depuis 1950. Il s’agit d’improvisation collective non mesurée et accompagnée par des instruments. Le répertoire le plus populaire est formé par le ngam kieu de Nguyen Du, une épopée de 3 000 vers dont on joue des nuits durant des extraits (lay).

Le quan họ ou quan họ bắc ninh est populaire à Hà Bắc et dans tout le pays. De nombreuses variations existent, en particulier dans les provinces du Nord. Chanté a cappella, il est improvisé et joué lors de rituels.

Les chants de travail ho sont des chants à répons employés dans bien des professions pénibles.

Hát xẩm
Hát xẩm

Les chants populaires ly sont des chants d’amour, de nostalgie ou de divertissement.

Les chants ru sont des berceuses.

Les chants nhac dam ma sont des lamentations funéraires accompagnées d’un petit orchestre (hautbois, flûte, vièles et percussion).

Les ensembles nhac ngu am (« musique des cinq sons ») se chargent de certains rituels religieux cao-dai. L’ensemble civil van composé de 4 vièles et une percussion peut aussi jouer en dehors de ces occasions. L’ensemble militaire vo, composé d’un hautbois et de percussions joue dans les processions et pour les funérailles.

Le xẩm ou hát xẩm (xẩm chantant), populaire au nord du pays, remontant au XIVe siècle, est en danger de disparition ; il est joué habituellement par des mendiant itinérant aveugles.

Instruments de musique

Vents :

  • Đing nǎm
  • Kèn bầu
  • Kèn đám ma
  • M’buot
  • Ốc
  • Púa
  • Sâo

Cordes :

Percussions :

Dan tranh
Dan tranh
  • Cái phách
  • Đàn đá
  • Dan moï
  • Dan klongput
  • Klông pút
  • Muong
  • Phách
  • Sinh tiền
  • Song lang
  • T’rưng

Musique actuelle

Principalement basée dans les communautés vietnamiennes des pays d’Amérique du Nord, d’Europe ou d’Australie, la musique vietnamienne a rarement connu un succès de retentissement mondial. Néanmoins, les collaborations entre artistes vietnamiens et européens ne sont pas inexistantes, tels les duos entre Marc Lavoine et Phạm Quỳnh Anh ou la chanson-légende Chú Mèo Ngủ Quên de Trịnh Thanh Duyên et Awaken.

La musique pop a longtemps été dominée par les compositeurs Diệp Minh Tuyền, Thanh Tùng et surtout Pham Duy, Trịnh Công Sơn et Văn Cao. Le rock vietnamien est aussi en pleine évolution.

Les principaux compositeurs actuels sont :

  • Dương Thụ
  • Đức Huy
  • Đỗ Bảo
  • Hoàng Công Luận
  • Hoàng Việt Khanh
  • Lam Phuong
  • Phú Quang
  • Trần Tiến
  • Trish Thuy Trang
Hồ Ngọc Hà
Hồ Ngọc Hà

Les groupes et chanteurs actuels sont :

Luth Le luth (de l’arabe العود al-`ūd) est un instrument à cordes pincées. Le terme désigne aussi de manière générale tout instrument ayant les cordes parallèles à un manche. Hồ Ngọc Hà Hồ Ngọc Hà, née le 25 novembre 1984 à Đồng Hới, est une chanteuse, modèle et actrice vietnamienne. http://www.wikiwand.com/fr/Musique_vietnamienne

HÀ THU : Musique traditionnelle, un patrimoine culturel à conserver

Musique traditionnelle, un patrimoine culturel à conserver

La musique traditionnelle fait partie du patrimoine culturel de chaque pays. Jusqu’à aujourd’hui, le Vietnam compte cinq sortes de musiques traditionnelles reconnues par l’UNESCO en tant que patrimoines immatériels : musique de cour de Hue, gongs du Tay Nguyen, chants des courtisanes (ca tru), chant alterné (quan ho) et chant à l’entrée de la maison communale (hat xoan).

patrimoines mondiaux au vietnam

le chant xoan

Par contre, comme beaucoup d’autres musiques traditionnelles dans le monde, celle du Vietnam est moins connue et intéressée par le public, surtout les jeunes générations, que la musique moderne. Selon le musicien Mai Tuyết Hoa, afin que la musique traditionnelle retrouve le chemin du cœur des Vietnamiens, il faudrait qu’elle ait plus de place dans les médias.

Récemment, apparaissent plusieurs vidéos clip des acteurs occidentaux chanté les morceaux de musique traditionnelle Vietnam en exprimant leur passion pour cette musique étrangère. Ces derniers attirent beaucoup l’attention des Vietnamiens et deviennent des coups de cloche réveillant ceux qui ont oublié leur musique traditionnelle.

En voici une vidéo clip dans laquelle un américain qui chante le “Cải lương” :

Et voici une chanson ancienne “Diễm xưa” qui était très populaire pendant les années 60, écrit par le musicien célèbre Trịnh Công Sơn, réalisé par Lee Kirby, un expatrié au Vietnam.

A travers de cet article, nous voulons donc rappeler tous les lecteurs vietnamiens la beauté de la musique traditionnelle du pays et l’importance de conserver et promouvoir ce patrimoine national. Nous voulons également faire découvrir les lecteurs étrangers, les anciens et futurs voyageurs au Vietnam, la culture vietnamienne à travers sa musique.

La musique traditionnelle est extrêmement diverse selon les régions du pays. Il existe par ailleurs des différences marquées entre le Nord, le Centre et le Sud, et aussi entre les zones montagneuses et les plaines côtières.

Musique traditionnelle dans le Nord Vietnam :

1, Le Tuồng ( ou hát bội)

Le « Tuong » ou hát bôi, est un théâtre classique de cour importé de Chine au XIVe siècle. Nettement influencé par l’opéra chinois, il a été introduit au Vietnam au XIIIè siècle par les envahisseurs mongols, jusqu’à ce qu’ils soient repoussés par Tran Hung Dao. Très cérémonieux, le théâtre hat tuong, emprunte sa gestuelle et ses décors à l’opéra chinois. Un orchestre de six musiciens, dominé par le tambour, l’accompagne.

Le hat tuong comprend un nombre limité de personnages caractéristiques, immédiatement identifiables par leur maquillage et leurs costumes symboliques. Ainsi, une face maquillée en rouge représente le courage, la loyauté et la fidélité. Les traîtres et les personnages cruels se blanchissent le visage. Les habitants des plaines ont la figure peinte en vert, les montagnards, en noir. Horizontaux, les sourcils signifient l’honnêteté ; en accent circonflexe, la cruauté, et, tombants, la lâcheté. Selon la façon dont il tripode sa barbe. On peut reconnaître les émotions (réflexion, inquiétude, colère, etc.) qui animent un personnage masculin.

2, Chèo : Le  « Chèo » (« chant comique ») est un théâtre populaire apparu au Xè siècle dans le delta du fleuve Rouge, au Nord du pays, il est considéré comme la plus ancienne forme d’opéra vietnamien existante. Le Cheo se distingue tout de même du Tuong sur plusieurs points :

– Le chant du cheo est plus rapide, moins accentué et moins grave

– Les personnages ne sont pas forcément rois et généraux

– Les costumes sont plus réels; les décors simples.

On y chante et déclame avec des mots de tous les jours, en recourant à de nombreux proverbes et dictons. La plupart des mélodies sont d’origine paysanne. L’air enjoué du cheo se manifeste à travers le rire et la subtilité. Le bien et le mal sont les thèmes principaux.

Il y a un échange constant entre la foule et les personnages, soit, dao (actrice), kep (acteur), lao (personne âgée), mu (matrone) et he (bouffon).”

3, Ca tru :

Le ca trù (ou hát ả đào) est une forme de musique du nord du pays, avec un répertoire composé de chants cultuels, de rivalité ou de divertissement. Il n’y a pas de mélodie fixe car elle varie en fonction de la langue à tons. Cette musique populaire qui aurait été créée par Ả Đào, une chanteuse qui aurait charmé « l’ennemi » avec sa voix tandis qu’elle frappe une planchette de bois avec une baguette, accompagnée par un luth ou un tambour et souvent dansé aussi.

La plupart des chanteurs du genre restent des jeunes femmes. Dans les années 1980, le genre a été revitalisé par le relâchement de la répression gouvernementale.

4, Hát chầu văn :

Le hát chầu văn ou hát văn ou chầu văn est une musique spirituelle jouée pour invoquer les esprits durant les cérémonies de possession du culte dong bong. Cette musique est populaire à Hà Nam, Nam Dinh et quelques provinces dans le Nord.

Très rythmée, elle recherche la transe, et est chantée par l’un des musiciens qui l’accompagnent à la vièle dan nhi ou au luth dan nguyet. Avant 1986, le gouvernement vietnamien le réprimait ainsi que les autres formes d’expression religieuse. Depuis, le genre a été revitalisé par des musiciens comme Phạm Văn Tỵ.

Musique traditionnelle dans le Centre Vietnam :

La musique de Huê est née vraisemblablement sous le règne du seigneur Nguyên, (fin du 17ème siècle, début du 18ème siècle). A cette même époque, les musiciens des seigneurs Nguyên étaient coupés de la tradition musicale du Nord Vietnam, et se trouvaient avec un parler et une musique différents.

Le site de Huê fut choisi comme capitale de la partie méridionale du Vietnam par le seigneur Nguyên Phuoc Trân en 1687. Huê est devenue Capitale Impériale du Vietnam sous le règne de Gia Long, en 1802.

La musique de Huê est née donc vers cette époque. La musique de divertissement, indépendamment de la musique de Huê, avait déjà existé avant cette époque.

La musique de Huê est la synthèse des deux traditions chinoise et indienne d’une part et d’autre part la tradition autochtone de la région de Huê.

Cette musique, aristocratique à l’origine, l’est restée jusqu’à la veille de la deuxième guerre mondiale. De nos jours, elle est enseignée dans les conservatoires et les écoles de musique.

1, Musique royale ( Nhạc cung đình)

Le nhac cung dinh est la musique de Cour (quan nhạc, nha nhai ou nhạc dai noi) de Huê joués sur deux ensembles disparates jusqu’au XXe siècle

Musique élégante (Nhã nhạc)

Le Nha Nhac, littéralement « musique élégante », désigne les divers styles de musique et de danse exécutés à la cour royale vietnamienne du quinzième siècle à la première moitié du vingtième siècle. Il ouvrait et clôturait généralement les cérémonies qui marquaient les anniversaires, les fêtes religieuses, les couronnements, les funérailles et les réceptions officielles.

De tous les genres musicaux qui ont vu le jour au Vietnam, seul le Nha Nhac peut se targuer d’avoir une dimension nationale et de forts liens avec les traditions d’autres pays d’Asie du Sud-Est.

Les représentations de Nha Nhac réunissaient autrefois de nombreux chanteurs, danseurs et musiciens vêtus de somptueux costumes. Les grands orchestres, où dominaient les tambours, comprenaient de nombreux autres types de percussions, ainsi que des instruments à vent et à cordes. Tous les exécutants devaient rester extrêmement concentrés afin de suivre scrupuleusement toutes les étapes du rite.

2, Hò Huế

Hò Huế est un chant mélodieux, rythmique et typique de Huế

Il y a 3 catégories de Hò Huế:

–  Hò nghi lễ (pour les cérémonies) : celui-ci comprend 2 variances : đưa linh et chèo cạn.

Hò vui chơi (pour les loisirs) : qui comprend 5 variances hò ru em (berceuse), hò bài thai, hò bài chòi, hò bài tiệm và hò nàng vung.

–  Hò lao động (pour les travaux) : dont plusieurs variances, par exemple selon le métier : hò khau đai, hò khau sòng, hò kéo thác, hò đẩy noốc, hò mái nhì (ou mái đẩy), hò ô, hò lơ, (ce sont des chants d’accompagnement pour relever le cœur des travailleurs) , hò quết vôi (peinture à la base de la chaux),  hò gọi nghé (appel le buffon), hò giã gạo (ou hò khoan) , hò xay lúa, hò nện (ou hò hụi) les chants collectifs pendant la saison de décorticage du riz …

Le point fort de Hò Huế est la subtilité de son langage. Les mots sont denses, les dialogues sont typiques de Huê. L’humour est 100% de la cité impériale. Ni vulgarité ni médiocrité. La composition suit les règles des poèmes de “thơ lục bát” (versification alterne entre les vers de 6 et de 8 pieds.)

4, Ca Hue :

Le ca huê est une ancienne forme de musique de chambre aristocratique liée au divertissement au centre du pays. Le dan huê ou nhạc huế en est la musique, datant du XVIIe siècle. Il est interprété par une chanteuse accompagnée d’un ensemble de trois ou cinq instruments à cordes (luths, cithare et vièles : Ngu Tuyêt : les cinq parfaits) jouant sur les modes bac et nam.

Musique traditionnelle dans le Sud Vietnam

1, Đờn ca tài tử :

Le đàn tài tử ou nhạc tài tử est l’équivalent des précédents pour le sud du pays depuis le XIXe siècle. Musique de divertissement destinée aux « amateurs », elle use des mêmes modes mais en y instillant des nuances de caractère sentimental, correspondantes à des états émotionnels. Principalement instrumentale et improvisée, elle se joue avec les cordes dàn tranh, ty ba, dan kim, dan tam, dan co et les percussions song lang.

2, Cải lương :

Comparé au tuồng et au chèo, le cải lương est un opéra rénové reste encore populaire. Il apparaît au XIIe siècle et traite de thèmes à la fois historiques et contemporains. Il a été adapté au début du XXe siècle, aux innovations modernes et à l’influence française, et peut par exemple inclure des guitares électriques. L’accompagnement est joué par un nhac tai tu notamment. C’est une forme complexe et partiellement improvisée de musique de chambre proche du dan tai tu, musique des « amateurs », du sud du pays.

D’ailleurs, il existe un grand nombre de musiques folkloriques régionales en vertu de la diversité géographique et ethnique du pays.

1, Le ngâm tho:

Le ngâm tho est la poésie chantée folklorique incorporée dans le théâtre et devenue une forme urbaine de musique de chambre depuis 1950. Il s’agit d’improvisation collective non mesurée et accompagnée par des instruments. Le répertoire le plus populaire est formé par le ngam kieu de Nguyen Du, une épopée de 3 000 vers dont on joue des nuits durant des extraits (lay).

2, Le chant alterné (quan họ):

Le quan họ ou quan họ bắc ninh est populaire à Hà Bắc et dans tout le pays. De nombreuses variations existent, en particulier dans les provinces du Nord. Chanté a cappella, il est improvisé et joué lors de rituels.

3, Les chants de travail Hò sont des chants à répons employés dans bien des professions pénibles.

4, Les chants populaires Lý sont des chants d’amour, de nostalgie ou de divertissement.

5, Les chants Ru sont des berceuses :

Les mères vietnamiennes ont l’habitude de se servir aussi des berceuses traditionnelles ( hát ru dans le Nord et ầu ơ dans le Sud ) pour dorloter les enfants. Ces berceuses sont d’une manière générale, une occasion pour les femmes, de dire leurs plaintes envers les difficultés de leur vie quotidienne difficile.

6, Les chants “nhac dam ma” sont des lamentations funéraires accompagnées d’un petit orchestre (hautbois, flûte, vièles et percussion).

7, Les ensembles nhac ngu am (« musique des cinq sons ») se chargent de certains rituels religieux cao-dai. L’ensemble civil van composé de 4 vièles et une percussion peut aussi jouer en dehors de ces occasions. L’ensemble militaire vo, composé d’un hautbois et de percussions joue dans les processions et pour les funérailles.

8, Le xẩm ou hát xẩm (xẩm chantant), populaire au nord du pays, remontant au XIVe siècle, est en danger de disparition ; il est joué habituellement par des mendiant itinérant aveugles.

Les mots clés qui vous ont permis à retrouver cet article:

– musique traditionnelle vietnam

– culture vietnamienne

– nord vietnam

– voyageurs au Vietnam

– musique blog voyage vietnam

Source : http://www.opusmang.com/vietnam/

https://fr.wikipedia.org/

http://360degresvietnam.com/chaque-jour-une-trouvaille/musique-traditionnelle-vietnam-un-patrimoine-culturel-a-conserver/

NGUYỄN VĨNH BẢO : INTRODUCTION TO VIETNAMESE MUSIC

http://namkyluctinh.org/a-ngoaingu1/vinhbao-introtovnmusic.pdf

vinh bao

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INTRODUCTION TO VIETNAMESE MUSIC
by Nguyen Vinh Bao
Dedicated to the traditional musicians of Vietnam:
“May their Art flourish and their creativity be reborn”
The Vietnamese have produced several worthwhile books about music but these have
remained buried in the relative obscurity of the Vietnamese language.
THE PAST HISTORY OF VIETNAMESE MUSIC
The music of Vietnam and its history are too complex to be described briefly. True, to a large
extent, Vietnamese music was handed down from one generation to another. I am spending my
life studying music of every corner of the country, and am fortunate, however, in having some
various written and oral sources on my research.
It is hoped that the present information will prove both informative and entertaining to those who
have been attracted to Vietnamese music. The exact ethnological origin of the Vietnamese
music is not clearly known. In addition to the Chinese, Korean, Mongolian and Southeast
Asian’s influences found in archeological remnants, there seems to be something that can only
be explained as indigenously Vietnamese.
Along with Chinese literature, architecture, government, and religion, Vietnam had adopted
Chinese music models and developed music of her own. However, in the process of adaptation,
the system was likely reshaped by the Vietnamese people according to their own well
established habit.
Western music is easily understood by Westerners because it is part of their own heritage. A
large part of Vietnamese music is either incomprehensible to them or greatly oversimplified for
them by convenient stereotypes provided by only partially-informed writers, who sometimes
confuse it with that of China. Therefore, before Westerners could understand Vietnamese
music, they must first have an idea of its place in the general history of Vietnam.
Because of her geographical locations, Vietnam belongs as much to East-Asia as to South-
Asia. Moreover, Vietnam was under Chinese domination for a thousand years (from the 1st to
the 10th century). Besides, at the crossroads of peoples and civilization, Vietnam was also in
touch with the people of the ancient Indianized Kingdom of Champa (The Cham still exist in
greatly reduced number as one of the ethnic minorities in Viet Nam today).
Vietnamese music, like Vietnamese culture, is primarily East Asian rather than Southeast Asian.
Its closest affinities are to China, Korea, Japan, and Mongolia. This combination of influences
has produced a sophisticated and multifaceted musical culture, and it is not surprising that
Vietnamese music shares many characteristics with that of China. Among the common items
are the Pentatonic (five-tone) scale, and more than a dozen instruments, some of which are
central to the music of both cultures.
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of music is of a strictly private nature to be heard by a small audience and practiced by
professional or semi-professional people as hobby for their own enjoyment with a repertoire
which includes mainly songs accompanied by one, two or three instruments. One can enjoy the
beauty of the music and the mastery of the performers. The value of the ensemble is not in the
instrumentation, but rather lies in its use.
The “Nhac Tai Tu” is a popular and virile music which that offers great pleasure to anyone who
listens to it and who also learns what to listen for in it. By understanding some of the aesthetics
and formal principles of such music, one can develop a true respect for those Vietnamese
musicians who created it.
THE INSTRUMENTS
The Ðàn Tranh – Zither
It is difficult to tell the original character of the Vietnamese Dan Tranh, which seems quite
distinct from that of imported Chinese Zheng.
The standard length of the common Ðàn Tranh is 95 centimeters. It has 16 brass or steel strings
upheld by sixteen movable bridges (also called swallows or horses) and is tuned by means of
sixteen wooden pegs. The musician adjusts the pitch of the notes by moving these bridges in
both directions.
The said common 16-stringed Ðàn Tranh had disappeared since the appearance of those with
17, 19 and 21 strings, which were Nguyen Vinh Bao’s innovation in 1950. Nguyen Vinh Bao has
spent several years in trying to improve and perfect the Vietnamese Zither without deforming or
denaturing it.
In Vietnam, the Zither is used sparingly in most traditional music, and is the ladies’ favorite lute.
The crystal clear timbre of its metal strings, its delicate movements, and subtle execution give
the instrument its feminine character.
Traditionally, the strings are plucked with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand. In recent
years, many other techniques have been added.
The Ðàn Nguyêt or Ðàn Kìm – moon shaped-lute
The sound-body of this 2 nylon-stringed lute has the shape of a full moon. Its long handle bears
8 high keys in bamboo called “phím dàn”. The traditional musician can get as many as four
notes from a single keyboard which requires a natural talent backed by at least ten years of
practice
The ñàn BÀu or ñàn Ƕc huyŠn – the monochord
This one-stringed lute is of ancient origin. Similar ones can be found under the name Ichi-genkin
in Japan, Gopiyantra in India and Sadiou in Cambodia. The manner of playing of the
Vietnamese monochord differs completely from that of the Japanese, Indian, Cambodian
musicians. The Vietnamese musician plays harmonic sound and alters its tautness by acting
upon the buffalo horn rod with the left hand to obtain modulation far superior to that of a
Hawaiian guitar.
The Ðàn Ty`Bà –
a four nylon strings pearl-shaped lute
This lute bears the name Biwa in Japan and Pipa in China. The typical tuning of these four
strings is usually:
Strings 4 3 2 1
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In order to understand and appreciate Vietnamese music, the ear must learn to distinguish
subtle nuances.
I. MODAL MUSIC
Each mode is characterized by:
1. a modal scale
2. intervals of this scale
3. specific ornamentations
4. determined mood
5. tempo
II. REPERTOIRE
In the Music for Diversion of the South (Nha.c Tài Tu+? Nam Bô.) there are four modes:
1. BAC MODE – cheerfulness and happiness music.
There are 6 pieces:
1. Luu thuy truong
2. Phú luc chan
3. Bình bán chan
4. Xuân tình chan
5. Tây Thi vn
6. Co ban van
2. BAC NHAC LE MODE – ceremonial, religious music.
There are 7 pieces:
1. Xàng xê
2. Ngu doi thuong
3. Ngu doi ha
4. Long ngâm
5. Long dang
6. Van giá
7. Tieu khúc
3. NAM MODE – includes 3 pieces of three characters
1. Nam xuân – (serenity and tranquility)
2. Nam ai – (grievances)
3. Ðao ngu cung – (solemnity)
4. OÁN MODE – expresses profound pain.
There are 4 pieces:
1. Tu dai oán
2. Phung cau hoàng
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3. Phung hoàng cau
4. Giang nam cuu khúc
III. THE NAMES OF NOTES
In Western music, one octave contains 7 main notes.
DO RE MI FA SOL LA SI
C D E F G A B
Which approximately correspond to Vietnamese words:
HÒ XU. XU XANG XÊ CÔNG CÔ’NG
L U U# S X C C#
But only five notes
HÒ XU. XANG XÊ CÔ’NG
L U S X C
Do ré fa sol la
C D F G A
are considered as vital.
Vietnamese music is the music of the Far-East countries and the pentatonic scale is most
frequently used.
HO XU. XANG XÊ CÔ’NG
L U S X C
Do ré fa sol la
C D F G A
Notice that this scale has three fixed notes:
HO XU. XANG
L U S
Do ré fa
C D F
and two auxiliary notes collectively known as “changing tones”.
XU. CÔ’NG
U C
Ré la
D A
In Vietnamese music, there is, however a concept of “happy” and “sad” tunings or scales which
is found in major-minor concept in the West. For the instruments, there are several tunings and
scales. There is no fixed basic pitch to which the instruments are tuned. The pitch of the HÒ
fundamental tone of the scale can take any pitch. If the HÒ takes the pitch of the DO (C), the
Vietnamese pentatonic basic scale will be as follows:
HÒ XU XANG XE CÔ’NG
L U S X C
Do re fa sol la
C D F G A
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1 tone 1 ½ tone 1 tone
In these five notes, the fixed notes are:
HO XANG XE
L S X
Do fa sol
C F G
XU(U) (ré) (D) and CONG (C) are auxiliary notes – literally “changing tones”
These two notes are to be regulated by the requirements of the Mode, specific composition and
play.
The XU (U) (ré) (D) can be raised to the pitch of the Mi (E) and the CONG (C) to that of the Si
(B).
It should be noted that the pitch of the XU (U#) (y) and CÔNG (C#) (oan) is slightly lower –
about 1 coma – than that of the Mi (E) and the Si (B).
The pitch of the XU (U) (y) varies between the Re # (D sharp) and Mi (E) while CÔNG (C#)
(oan) varies between the Sib (B flat) and the Si (B)…
IV. THE SCALES
There are several scales depending on the specific composition, genre, and tradition.
BAC MODE SCALE – Scale used for playing happy melodies.
HÒ XU XANG XÊ CONG
L U S X C
Do re fa sol la
C D F G A
This scale has the same aspect as the black keys Do ré fa sol la (C D F G A) on a piano
keyboard but different in pitches.
Except for peculiar cases, instruments are tuned as desired. The idea of absolute pitch is not
taken into considerations, a fact that gives a certain impression of false notes to Westerner’s
ears which are accustomed to the absolute pitch of the tempered scale notes.
SCALES USED FOR PLAYING SAD MELODIES EG.
1. The Vong co (longing for the past), Ly con sao (Lament of the Blackbird) …..
HÒ XU(y) XANG XÊ CÔNG
L U# S X C
Do mi fa sol si
C E F G B
2. Nam xuân (serenity), Ðao ngu cung (solemnity)
HÒ XU XANG XÊ CÔNG (oan)
L U S X C#
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Do ré fa sol si
C D F G B
3. Nam ai and Oan Mode (profound sadness)
HO XU (y) XANG XE CONG (oan)
L U# S X C#
Do mi fa sol si
C E F G B
As said, remember that the pitch of the Vietnamese Mi (E) and Si (B) corresponds
approximately to that of the Western Mi (E) and Si (B).
As a matter of taste, if the Vietnamese HÒ (L) of the scale takes the pitch of Ré (D), the dan
Tranh (Zither) must be tuned as follows:
4. BA(‘C MODE- happy melodies
HÒ XU XANG XÊ CÔNG
L U S X C
mi sol la si
D E G A B
5. VONG CÔ, LÝ CON SÁO
HÒ XU (y) XANG XÊ CÔNG
L U# S X C
Ré Fa# sol la si
D F# G A B
6. NAM XUÂN, ÐAO NGU CUNG
HÒ XU XANG XÊ CÔNG (oan)
L U S X C#
Ré mi sol la do
D E G A C
7. NAM AI and OÁN mode
HÒ XU (y) XANG XÊ CÔNG (oan)
L U# S X C#
Ré Fa# sol la do
D F# G A C
8. NORTHERN SA MAC SCALE
HÒ XU(y) (-) XANG XÊ CÔNG (oan) (-)
L U# (-) S X C# (-)
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Ré fa sol la do
D F G A C
V. THE ORNAMENTATIONS
Ornamentations determine the Mode. They are the predominant feature of Vietnamese music.
In speaking of Vietnamese traditional music, one must differentiate between many other styles
from the South, the Center and the North and has a correct mastery of the meaning of the note
pitches and their ornamentations.
VI. THE EXECUTION
Vietnamese music, quite sophisticated and dense in ideas presents a real opportunity for
interpretation by a range of fine musicians. The rhythm and temp may vary, but the music
always remains within the melody. In order to bring new vitality to the melody, the traditional
musician remains free to introduce different types of variations on it according to his inspiration
at the moment. The success of his performance depends on how effectively he builds up the
desired mood. Thus, each performance of a known piece so carried out takes on a different
aspect, and this counter-balances the limitation of the repertoire. This difference is similar to that
found between Jazz music as it is written and as it is performed. Very often, Vietnamese
listeners are not listening to a composition, but to the rendering of music by such or such
musician.
VII. THE IMPROVISED PRELUDE
Before interpreting a piece of music, the musician has the habit to play some improvisation
phrases of his own invention, in free rhythm, following an original and an unpredicted design in
the Mode of the piece.
There are no definite rules governing the prelude. The prelude allows the musician to check
again the tension of the strings, finding the inspiration for him, and creates a good atmosphere
for the listeners.
VIII. THE MUSIC TEACHING
The teacher’s home is usually his studio. Here, on certain days of the week, and for specified
number of hours, he is available for lesson. The problems of lesson scheduling do not bother
the traditional teacher. It is a matter of first come, first served. This has an advantage in that the
students are never late for a lesson.Usually, the students wait in an adjoining room where they
may talk or follow the course of the piece in progress.
The lesson itself consists from twenty to thirty minutes playing the particular composition under
study that week. Neither notation systems have a definite majority. The repertoire is maintained
entirely by memory and passed down through practice. Usually, the teacher also plays, or sings
as he plays, or illustrates each note of the melody on the edge of his closed fan. When all notes
have been learned in order, the rhythm is added. The entire melody is never played beforehand
so that one does not have any idea of the overall the piece.
There are some students who do not read the notation and learn the entire piece by imitating
the teacher. The exact notation system used and the resultant melody vary from teacher to
10 |
P a g e
teacher as well in different pieces. The rote teaching method sometimes is constantly in danger
of producing automatons.
The teacher has the right to expect loyalty from his student, and the student, instinctively feels
veneration towards him, and calls him « Su Phu » The word « Su Phu » in Vietnamese has far
greater implication than the term teacher does in English.
In 1956 a National School of Music was set up in Saigon. This school chiefly teaches Western
music, but does include a traditional section where pupils are taught to play Vietnamese musical
instruments; classes of Western music are far more popular than that in which traditional music
is taught. Applications for admission to the piano courses are numerous. Applicants who fall
short of the required marks are transferred to the study of the traditional section.
In recent years, however, the influence of Western music is very strong, and is usurping the
importance role of Vietnamese traditional music.
In Vietnam as in all colonial countries, the power of the conqueror leads the colonized people to
imitate the way of living, the outlook, the artistic, and literary style introduced by the conqueror.
Vietnam is called the most Westernized country in the Orient because of legitimate contacts
with the West, some traditions are dropped, and others will change their shapes. In recent
years, however, the influence of Western music is very strong and has displaced Vietnamese
music.
The West displays to the Vietnamese young people its flawless instruments, its accurate
notation, its varied repertoire, its orchestration, and its disciplined orchestras. In contrast, in the
traditional section young people find archaic instruments, a primitive system of notation, a
restricted repertoire, no orchestration, and a complete lack of discipline within the orchestra.
Thus, Vietnamese music often takes on the figure of a clumsy old woman for whom one can
have a certain respect, but whose company is rather boring. This inferiority complex makes it
impossible for the traditional teachers to instill a high opinion of their art into a younger
generation which is attracted for the most part by the bravura, and the scientific aspect of
Western music. It is therefore not surprising that part of young generation, through
carelessness, is neglecting their own art, an art which should be the pride of their nation. Such a
state of things is to be sorely regretted.
The fact may be explained by a number of reasons, mostly psychological, social, and political
difficulties. The study of Western music offers young people a prospect of being able to continue
their training abroad, considerable esteem and a top rung of the social ladder. In the traditional
music, musicians have difficulty in earning their living, and must have a second job if they are to
make both ends meet. They never attend an international meeting to make cultural exchanges
between East and West, to establish reciprocal relations with the traditional forms of music in
the East and the Far East. A small number of young Vietnamese remain faithful to the tradition,
but been won by Western music richness in the domain of harmony and have tried to build it in
a new orientation. This evolution takes away from traditional music its character, its originality,
and leads it towards the path of hybridizing. For example there have been traditional
instruments concerto with Western orchestra.
Vietnamese music is the most independent form. The thematic and the developmental
techniques of the Western composition are no commonly found in Vietnamese music. One must
distinguishes between a superficial understanding of both Vietnamese and Western music and
learn how to apply such principles to Vietnamese music in order to produce significant
composition. In both Vietnamese and Western music, scales are expendable and compositional
principles. To the extent that Vietnamese music attempts to imitate the Western music ideal, it
will lose its own most vital elements. In such a situation, it is doomed to eventual failure.
11 |
P a g e
CONCLUSION
As a partisan of progress, and conscious of the necessity for the traditional music to evolve, I
sincerely hope that the Vietnamese traditional music can adapt itself to the new condition of
modern life without affecting its essence. Every innovation in a tradition must be brought about
willingly, and by crafted masters of the traditional music. It is indispensable and in my opinion,
that the qualified authorities must shoulder their cultural responsibility, takes steps to perpetuate
the tradition. They must also review the position of the traditional musicians, foster musical
research, encourage the study of traditional music, and reorganize the school of music. If
Vietnamese music can maintain the interest of society, it can eventually take its rightful place in
World culture. When this happens, it could provide a better living for Vietnamese musicians, and
the young generation will no longer hesitate to devote themselves to the study of their own art.
But if the music cannot survive, it is safe to say that Vietnam, and indeed the World will have
lost one of the Greatest Musical Forms.
Carbondale, October 19, 1970
NGUYEN VINH BAO
Artist-musician
Former Prof. at Saigon National Conservatory of Music -1956-1964
Visiting Prof. at Southern Illinois University – 1970 -1972
Lute-Craftsman
Phone: 843.0454
Email : vb1908@gmail.com
NOTES:
(
1)
The Hat Boi
is a conventionalized and symbolic art form, not at all a realistic one. The
Vietnamese Hat Boi borrowed from Chinese opera the symbolic use of scenery, the costumes,
makeup, and the gestures. Its stories remain mostly Chinese or translations of Chinese
historical tales which have a Confucian moral. Musically, in Hat Boi the percussion is the most
important element. The largest drum is the “trô’ ng chiên” (battle drum), which punctuates
declamations and accompanies songs and dances, and also leads the orchestra. The second
most important musician plays the “Kèn” (oboe or sona). The “Kèn” in Vietnamese ears “rips the
heart from your intestines”, and it is therefore also used in funeral music. The “dan Co or dan
Nhi and the dan Gao” (2 stringed-fiddle) is especially used to accompany declamations.
Percussion instruments include Gongs and Cliquettes, and sometimes also the buffalo horn and
Cymbals. Today, the Hat Boi is in a period of decline
(2)
The Hat Cai luong
– The growth of the Hat Cai luong made it necessary to have a great deal
of additional music. The Nhac Tai Tu music was not enough; so many new pieces were written,
particularly shorter selections to fit particular kinds of action. Singing is the most important
feature, as 70 % to 80 % of a performance may be devoted to songs, accompanied by
instruments such as the “dan Kim” or “dan Nguyet” (moon shaped-lute), the “dan Tranh”
(Zither), the “dan Co” or “dan Nhi” and the “dan Gao” (2 stringed-fiddle), the “dan Tam” (3 nylon
strings fretless lute), the “dan Doc huyen” or “dan Bau” (monochord). The Hat Cai luong has
increased its popularity over the years compared with the Hat Bội

http://namkyluctinh.org/a-ngoaingu1/vinhbao-introtovnmusic.pdf

Vietnam traditional music and traditional instruments

Vietnam traditional music and traditional instruments

Lullaby song, folk song, spiritual song… Gongs or Cong-Chieng, lithopone, 36 string zither… Traditional music has played an important role in the lives of the Vietnamese. Currently, music still occupies a considerable position in the spiritual lives of the Vietnamese.

Have you ever listened to “Nhac tien chien”?

Thursday, 09 October 2008 10:05

“Outside on the veranda, the autumn rain is gently falling. The somber sky is quieting, suspended clouds are scattering. Amidst the muffled wind blowing past in the autumn rain, who’s crying? who’s grieving…” are the so beautiful lyrics of a popular “Nhac tien chien” song named “Autumn Rain Drops” (or “Giot Mua Thu” in Vietnamese) by Dang The Phong, that makes us feel nostalgic…  Read more >>

About Sao Truc (Vietnamese Bamboo Flute)

Tuesday, 30 September 2008 09:45

Sao Truc, which is certainly Vietnam’s most well-known wind instrument with arch-form blowing hole, has long been attached to the cultural and spiritu… Read more >>

Chau van singing

Tuesday, 30 September 2008 02:58

Chau van ( or frequently called trau van ) is a religious form of art which combines singing and dancing and used for extolling the merits of beneficent … Read more >>

Trong Com, a traditional cylindrical drum in Vietnam

Tuesday, 30 September 2008 02:47

« How joyful to have a Tr o ng C o m; and it is an honour for those who can clap it skilfully , oohh ah bong ah bong … » , are beautiful lyrics and melody of a famous song … Read more >>

Dan Nhi, Vietnamese two-chord fiddle

Tuesday, 30 September 2008 02:07

With melodious sounds, Dan Nhi becomes indispensable one in a traditional musical orchestra to express the subtle mood of man’s soul.   Dan Nhi is a sort of… Read more >>

Ca tru singing

Tuesday, 30 September 2008 01:51

Perhaps, the most important catalyst in the development of contemporary Vietnamese folkloric performance was the appearance of the call-and-response d… Read more >>

Lithophone or Dan Da

Monday, 29 September 2008 07:09

Lithophone or Dan Da is also known as a percussion instrument made of stone. The name is applied to a specific instrument made of resonant stones that p… Read more >>

Dan Bau, monochord of Vietnam

Monday, 29 September 2008 06:53

Dan Bau is a Vietnamese monochord, a traditional one-string musical instrument.   The history… According to the « Dai Nam thuc luc tien bien », the … Read more >>

Tuong singing (Classical Opera)

Friday, 26 September 2008 03:37 – Lan Nguyen

Tuong singing is one kind of Vietnamese tragicomedy and comic opera with gestures or costume. Serving an educational purpose, it is a combination of s… Read more >>

More Articles…

Page 1 of 2

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VIETNAM TRADITIONAL MUSICS

VIETNAM TRADITIONAL MUSICS

The Vietnamese music has had a rather long history. Since ancient times, the Vietnamese have had a strong inclination for music. The music for the Vietnamese people is considered to be an essential need; therefore, numerous musical instruments and genres intended for various purposes have been developed. Vietnamese people use music to express their innermost feelings, to encourage themselves while working and fighting, to educate their children in good traditions and national sentiment, to communicate with the invisible, and to sublimate their aspirations for a happy life.
THE VIETNAM TRADITIONAL MUSICAL HISTORY
The Vietnamese music has had a rather long history. Since ancient times, the Vietnamese have had a strong inclination for music. The music for the Vietnamese people is considered to be an essential need; therefore, numerous musical instruments and genres intended for various purposes have been developed. Vietnamese people use music to express their innermost feelings, to encourage themselves while working and fighting, to educate their children in good traditions and national sentiment, to communicate with the invisible, and to sublimate their aspirations for a happy life.
The simple and primitive instruments, as well as the more sophisticated ones, have been preserved to form a rich musical treasure. Numerous forms of songs and music have also been created and retained. They include lullabies, children’s songs, ritual songs, festivity songs, various work songs, courtship songs, riddle songs, melodies, and poem narration. There are also songs and music for groups, as well as for traditional theatre.
The Vietnamese traditional music is diverse due to the various genres that took shape during different periods of history. Songs of the same genre often differ very much in melody and expression from ethnicity to ethnicity. As a result, lullabies, for example, of the Kinh differ from those of the Muong.
The traditional music has played an important role in the lives of the Vietnamese. Currently, music still occupies a considerable position in the spiritual lives of the Vietnamese. Some genres of music still exist in rural areas, while others were brought to the stage to meet the demands of the population.

THE NHA NHAC  VIETNAMESE COURT MUSIC
The principles of the Vietnamese royal music came to Vietnam under the Ho Dynasty (1400-1407). The Ho Dynasty, however, only existed for a short time, so nha nhac rapidly fell into oblivion. In 1427, Le Loi defeated the Chinese Ming invaders and liberated the country. However, nha nhac only began to develop in the reign of King Le Thanh Tong (1460-1497) and reached its peak under the Nguyen Dynasty (1802-1945). The Nha nhac is genre of scholarly music. It attracted the participation of many talented songwriters and musicians, with numerous traditional musical instruments. The nha nhac will have opportunities to preserve from now on, develop and popularize to the public, inside and outside the country.

THE CA TRU
The ca tru is fortunately being restored and is more liked by the younger generation. The research scholars have traced the origins of ca tru to areas of high culture, such as the ancient imperial capital of Thang Long (present-day Hanoi), Ha Tay,… The artists of great talent have practiced the art, including Quach Thi Ho, Thuong Huyen, Kim Dzung, etc. Some of them are now in their seventies, but a successor generation has blossomed and holds great promise.
The ca tru is where poetry and music meet. People familiar with such ancient verse as luc bat (the six eight-syllable distich) and hat doi (singing tossed back and forth between groups of young men and women), and who are capable of sympathizing with the sentiments expressed in the sound of a small drum or a two-string viol, are more likely to fully enjoy a recital of ca tru. At this time, many famous poets of past centuries were great amateurs of ca tru who wrote beautiful lines to go with its melodies. One well known instance is the poem singing the enchantment of a pilgrimage to Chua Huong (Perfume Pagoda) by Chu Manh Trinh. Coming from the lips of a ca tru singer, it has bewitched successive generations of pilgrims visiting the hills and streams of the famous pagoda complex in Ha Tay Province.
The ca tru music is most enjoyable when there is complete harmony between the words being sung, the rhythm marked by a pair of small bamboo sticks held by the singer who strikes a small block of wood or bamboo called phach, and, last but not least, the appreciation shown by a man among the audience beating a small drum at the appropriate moments.
Finally , the ca tru is a refined form of art which is paradoxically appreciated and loved by audiences of all compositions. There are those who sit in small numbers in an urban auditorium to enjoy a recital. A Ca Tru Club has been founded in Hanoi where amateurs of this musical genre, young and old, local and foreign, regularly meet to enjoy its charming melodies.

THE QUAN HO
The birth place of quan ho folk songs is Bac Ninh Province. During village festivals, which are held every year, particularly in spring, young men and women gather in the yard of a communal house or pagoda, on a hill or in a rowing boat, and sing quan ho. This is a style of singing where songs alternate from group to group. The quan ho singing is a folk art of a highly collective nature. Those who sing are not entertainers, but all are part of the performance, and anyone is welcome to join.

THE HAT VAN
The Hat van in essence is a cantillation where the tunes and rhythm depend on the contents of the sung text. The tunes and rhythms may be linked together into a suite, used in relation to a mythical occurrence with hints of features from modern life. The breathing of a hat van singer comes from his or her midriff to nasal cavity, which works as a resonance box and creates an effect appropriate for religious subjects, particularly when heard in an atmosphere of incense and candles. The words of the chanting must be clear enough so that all those attending the ceremony are able to understand. There are two kinds of hat van: hat tho and hat len dong.
The hat tho is the chanting accompanying an act of worship. Hat tho is slow, serious, and dignified. Variations in the music are few and contain little contrasting pitch and stress.
The hat len dong accompanies psychic dancing claiming to respond to occult powers and expressing the will and orders of some supernatural being. It may contain many variations depending on the number of verses sung, often coming to a climax or slowing down to the tempo of a meditation.
The music instrument accompanying hat van plays a very important role, in emphasizing important passages or creating contrasting effects; in any event, the music enriches the content of the chant.
The main instrument used is the dan nguyet or moon-shaped lute, accompanied by the striking of the phach (a piece of wood or bamboo), xeng (clappers), trong chau (drum) and chieng (gong) marking the rhythm. Use may also be made of the 16-stringed zither thap luc and flute sao in the recitation of certain poetry, and of the eight-sound band dan bat am in certain ceremonies.
The dress worn by hat van singers, based on the cult of the « four palaces », includes a red robe for the cult of the « heavenly palace », a yellow robe for the « underground palace », a green robe for the « musical palace » and a white robe for the “aquatic palace ». The style of the robe and the headgear is related to the rank of the supernatural being honoured in the act of worship. Over time, the style of the costume may vary but the rules about the colours have remained unchanged.
The art of hat van originated in the Red River Delta and dates back to the 16th century, later spreading to the whole country. It has also adopted the essential beauty of folk songs from the uplands and highlands of the North, Center and South.
The hat van requires both a learned and a folksy character, and it has attracted musicologists at home and abroad.

THE THEN SONG
The then song is the religious music of the Tay, Nung minorities. This type of song can be considered a religious performance of Long Poems which depict a journey to the heavens to ask the Jade Emperor to settle trouble for the head of the household. The long poems consist of several chapters with different contents and lengths. The longest poem ever collected was 4,949 sentences with 35 chapters. The then song is a general performance of music, singing, dancing, and making gestures in different circumstances. In the ceremony procession, not only must the artist carry out religious activities, but the actor must also sing, play music, dance, and show gestures to demonstrate the meaning of the sentence he is singing. Sometimes the artist also performs other activities.
The music is the main element that completely penetrates the performance. Sometimes the music is accompanied with song, and at other moments the music serves as a background for dance or connecting parts of a song. The main musical instruments in a then performance are the tinh tau (a traditional stringed musical instrument resembling a guitar) and a chain of shaking instruments. Sometimes the band also has a bell. Most of Tay, Nung people, regardless of their age, sex, and religion, are fond of the then song. Some groups such as the Kinh living in the same region have also incorporated this kind of art form into their spiritual lives.

THE HUE MUSIC AND SONG
The chamber music originated from royal music at the beginning of the 19th century in the Nguyen Dynasty. It was well developed by the time of King Tu Duc. This music was popularized by the end of the 19th century, and ditties were added along with other folk songs of the Binh Tri Thien people. With this foundation, the music and songs of Hue are a combination of folk and royal music. The musical characteristics of Hue music and song have developed considerably, and musicians can play all the styles common to musical instruments, including solos, duets, trios, etc. Apart from that, there is also a pair of « Senh » and sometimes there is flute accompaniment. In the latter half of the 20th century, Hue music was professionally performed in public spaces to make a landmark out of a new traditional style of Vietnamese performance art.
The Hue music and songs bear a unique feature of characterizing the lives of people living in the central regions of Vietnam. In fact, Hue music is a combination of musical factors from various groups such as the Viet, Cham, Chinese, and others.

THE LY FOLK SONG
The ly song is one of the special folk songs of the Vietnamese people. It is sung in the northern, central and southern regions of Vietnam. These folk songs, however, are much more developed in the South. The various ly songs of the South contain different subject matters, as well as unique musical characteristics. The ly songs of the South depict the activities of production, emotions, and the thoughts of the people in their daily lives. Animals, plants, flowers, love, and marriage are also described in the ly folk songs. Some folk songs describe the common aspirations of the people or criticize disgraceful practices. The ly songs of the people in South Vietnam reflect the daily lives of the local residents. Although the songs have various styles, sorrow is the prominent characteristic described in the words of the songs. The songs are considered rather modest, simple, and mischievous.

THE TRADITIONAL MUSIC OF THE KHMER
This traditional music is held at any Khmer wedding reception in the South of Vietnam. There has been much change in the wedding customs of the Khmer, traditional wedding music has been well preserved by its people. The researchers have collected some ten ceremonial songs and folk songs which used to be sung at wedding receptions. The traditional songs sang at the wedding are expressions of the feelings and characteristics of the people’s lives in the Khmer community. Each song is equivalent to a specific rite in the wedding, such as leading the bridegroom to the bride’s house, asking for the breaking of the fence to get into the house, and the beginning of the ceremony. The ceremony incorporates the rituals of the hair cut, the pounding solution for dying teeth, the cutting of betel flowers into pieces in order to scatter them on heads of the young couple, the drawing of a sword out of its sheath, the binding of thread around the wrist, the kowtowing of the sun god, the act of entering into the wedding room, the sweeping of the wedding mat, and the greeting of parents and relatives. The reception lasts until the young couple see off their wedding guests.

THE RIJA FESTIVAL MUSIC
The Rija festivals provide the perfect opportunity to focus on the traditional music of the Cham. Typical musical instruments include the baranung (one -sided drum), kinang (pair of drums), saranai (Cham oboe), and kanhi (two-stringed bow instrument with a tortoise shell resonator). In addition to ritual melodies, saranai tunes, and the over 50 kinang beats that accompany dances, participants can enjoy vai chai tunes characterised by a robust rhythm and an attractive performance. It brings an interesting contribution to the abundant treasure of labour-related songs of the Vietnamese.

Related Travel Sites

Vietnam

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BRUNO DESCHÊNES : THE MUSIC OF VIETNAM

The Music of Vietnam
All Music Guide – Fall 2001
(Used by permission – © 2001 All Music Guide)

by Bruno Deschênes

Only since the beginning of the 1980s have we on this side of the world, started to hear appropriately about Vietnam and especially about its music. Vietnam is an intriguing country, located just south of China, and east of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. The music of Vietnam has had many influences. It has been influenced by China from the north, and through the south and west by its western neighboring countries as far away as India. Moreover, Vietnam has over 60 ethnic minorities, many of which have their own music and instruments, but which also influence each other. The music of Vietnam is therefore extremely diverse and can be divided into three main regions: South, Center and North, the music of each region having its own particularities.

In the following article, a general historical overview of Vietnamese music is presented, with its most particular types of instruments, few of which are unique to Vietnam. The last section will present what characterizes Vietnamese music and its musical genres.

A Short Historical Background of Vietnamese Music

Vietnam as we know the country today started in the Xth century with its first Dynasty (968-980), the Dinh dynasty. From that century on, historians have discerned four main periods in the history of its music. Previous to the Xth century, Vietnamese history is obscure; little is known about the origins of its music. Archeological findings as well as few historical texts indicate that drums, some percussions, mouth organs, and conch, were used, but little more can be conclusively told about the origins of Vietnamese music prior to the Dinh dynasty.

The first period is from the Xth to the XIVth centuries, and combines influences from India and China. This influence is clearly shown at the base of the Van Phúc Pagoda, in the village of Phât Tich, in the province of Bac Ninh, which was built in the Xth century. At the bottom of a group of columns, we still find frescos of musicians and ensembles playing instruments. These frescos give to historians a pertinent idea of how music was performed at that time. For example, some musicians sit like Indian musicians while wearing gaiter distinctively Chinese. The Chinese k’în (seven-string zither) is played alongside a drum similar to the Indian damaru.

The second period is from the XVth to the XVIII century, the influences being predominantly Chinese. In the middle of the XVth century, the king Lý Thái Tông ordered two of his advisers to establish the music of the Court. Other advisers also participated in this work later on. To a large extent, this new music was based on the music of the Chinese Court of the time, that of the Ming Dynasty. This influence could be seen in terms of instruments, orchestras, pieces, repertoires, styles and even modes and theories, although some of the advisers made sure that it suited the Vietnamese spirit of the time. Many different styles of music were then created from this base.

The third period is from the XIXth century to the beginning of World War II. The Court imposed some new rulings on music which brought along the creation of a lot of new music and theater. With these rulings, Vietnam was able to develop an original and unique music that it could finally call its own, and which forms most of today’s musical genres and styles. At the beginning of the XXth century, a new theater was created, called « reformed » theater. Additionally, Western influences discretely started to appear. A few Western instruments made their way into use in the South: mandolin, Spanish guitar and violin.

And the fourth period started around 1945 and continues to date. Because of a strong influence of Western modernization and music, there had been a sharp decline of traditional music followed by a revival, especially since the 1980s. During this period, there has also been the development of a European style of music and, as well, composers have been writing music incorporating the Western style. As this period is still ongoing, it is difficult to generalize the current style of Vietnamese music, which is still in the process of evolution.

Vietnamese Instruments

Vietnamese music uses an unusually large number of musical instruments. I list them here and then describe a few of the most important ones.

Wind instruments
· Transverse flutes: Dich, Sáo
· Straight flute: Tiêu
· Oboe: Kèn

String Instruments
· Monochord: Dàn dôc, huyên, dàn bâu
· 16-stringed zither: dàn tranh, dàn thâp luc
· 2-stringed luths: dàn kìm, dàn nguyêt, dàn doan, dàn nhât, dàn xên
· 3-stringed luths: dàn tam, dàn dáy
· 4-stringed luth: ty-bà
· Fiddles: dàn cò, dàn nhi, dàn gáo, dàn hô

Percussions
· Drums: Dai cô, Tiêu cô, trông nhac, trông com
· Wood: phách, Mõ
· Metal – bells: chuông, chung; cymbals: chap, choã; gongs: chiêng, lênh, thanh-la
· European instruments: mandolin, Spanish guitar, violin.

There are also several other wind, string, skin, wood, bamboo and metal instruments not named above, but many of which have been equally contributed by ethnic minorities.

The most typical, popular and most used Vietnamese instruments are the dàn bâu (monochord), the dàn tranh (16-string zither), the dàn nguyêt (lute in the shape of the moon), ty-bà (4-string lute) and dàn cò (2-string fiddle).

The dàn bâu is a one-string instrument that is apparently at least two thousand years old. It is unique to Vietnam. It is played with the right hand. The little finger side of the hand touches the string and applies pressure to shorten it, while a pick held by the thumb and index fingers plays the note. The left hand manipulates a handle that varies the tension on the string, creating different effects and pitches. The instrument has been modernized during the XXth century.

The dàn tranh is a 16-string zither of Chinese origin. The length can be between 98 and 110 cm. Up until the XVIth century, the strings were made of silk; since then, the great majority of instruments have been made with metal strings. It is played quite similarly to the Chinese gu zheng or the Japanese koto, with picks in the right hand which play the notes, while the left hand is used to press on the strings to create effects and change their pitches.

The Spanish guitar and the violin are mostly used in the reformed music of the South. The guitar was modified to better suit the needs of Vietnamese music. The spaces between the frets are carved deeper to allow for a change of sound by pressing on the string. There are four or five strings instead of six, and it is tuned differently (do1 fa1 do2 sol2 do3). The violin is also used and tuned as follow: do2 fa2 do3 sol3. It is played similarly to the dàn cò or the dàn gáo. The guitar and violin are used only in the South as they did not attract the interest of musicians from Central or North Vietnam.

The Music

Vietnamese music is modal, the most important mode being the pentatonic scale, among 10 typical modes. The pitches of the notes of these modes are not fixed, contrary to the Chinese traditional scale. The pitches of a mode and even melodies may vary from one region to another, from one instrument to another, or from one musician to another. Moreover, an important part of Vietnamese music is improvisation (in particular an improvised introduction to a song) and ornamentations, which vary with the styles, regions, instruments and musicians. The melodies of songs, no matter their genres (folksongs, theater, court or religious music, or others), follow the intonation of the Vietnamese language.

About musical genres, there are:

1) Court Music, called Nha Nhac, with large ensembles and dances.

2) Ritual and Religious music, which includes Buddhist ceremonies as well as shamanistic rituals.

3) Entertainment music, which includes the Hát a Dào, meaning the songs of the women singers; the music from Huê, from the Center of Vietnam; and the music of the South, which has four different styles.

4) Theater music, which is divided into three types: a) Popular theater which is called Chèo, b) Classical or Traditional Theater, called Hát Tuông or Hát Bôi, c) Reformed Theater, called Hát Cai Luong.

And finally, 5) there exist in Vietnam popular forms of music, which include folk music as well as the music of the more than 60 groups of ethnic minorities.

Conclusion

Nowadays, the Vietnamese government shows a strong political will to support and encourage the development, preservation and restoration of all forms of traditional music and arts. An Institute of Research on music and dance has been created. The well-known Vietnamese ethnomusicologist, Professor Trân Van Khê, has been a most influential figure in this revival. He has been teaching to young people, reopening traditional music schools and much more. Furthermore, there is strong support by the Vietnamese population to encourage the broadcasting on radio and television of traditional music, as well as for concert halls to present regular concerts. Many traditional music genres which were on the verge of extinction are now being revived. And finally, song books are published and CDs are produced, and well distributed throughout the country.

Suggested List of CDs

Those who would like to broaden their knowledge of Vietnamese music are invited to read the following book (unfortunately only in French) and booklets of the CDs listed below. Each CD booklet contains plenty of information in English. Any articles, books or CD booklets written by the extraordinary Professor Trân Van Khê are the most appropriate/informative.

Trân Van Khê, Vietnam, Tradition du Sud (Ocora, 1992)

Trân Van Khê & Nguyen Thi Hai Phuong, Viêt-Nam – Le dàn tranh, Musiques d’hier et ‘aujourd’hui ( Ocora, 1994)

Trân Van Khê, Viêt-nam, Poésie et chants (Ocora, 1994)

Pham Duc Thanh, Vietnamese Traditional Music (Oliver Sudden Productions Inc., 1999)

Khac Chi Ensemble, Moonlight in Vietnam (Henry St., 1997)

Vietnam Hát Chèo, Traditional Folk Theatre (Auvidis/Unesco, 1976)

The Music of Vietnam, Volume 1.1 ( Celestial Harmonies, 1994)

Northern Viet-Nam: Music and Songs of the inorities, ( Buda Records)

Viet Nam, Traditions of the South (1984-1996) (Unesco/Auvidis)

Reference

Trân Van Khê (1967/1996), Musique du Viet-Nam (Paris: Buchet/Chastel)

        
        


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