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TRẦN QUANG HẢI : ĐÀN BẦU của VIỆT NAM hay TRUNG QUỐC ?

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Đàn bầu hay đàn độc huyền thuộc nhạc cụ Việt Nam có từ lâu đời . Những nhà nghiên cứu tiền bối như cụ NGUYỄN XUÂN KHOÁT (bài về đàn bầu đăng ở tập san International Folk Music Council, năm 1949), cố GS Trần Văn Khê (đã miêu tả đàn bầu trong quyển luận án bảo vệ tại Paris năm 1958, và trong quyển VIETNAM /traditions musicales ,do nhà sách Buchet Chastel xuất bản tại Paris năm 1967 Gần đây nhứt nữ nhạc sĩ Quỳnh Hạnh (trong nhóm Hoa Sim được thành lập ở Saigon từ thập niên 60) bảo vệ luận án tiến sĩ về Đàn Bầu thành công tại trường đại học Sorbonne Paris 4 cách đây 10 năm. Tôi có viết bài miêu tả đàn bầu trong quyển MUSIC OF THE WORLD , do nhà xuất bản J.M.FUZEAU phát hành , Courlay, Pháp, vào năm 1994. Những nghệ nhân tài hoa như Mạnh Thắng , Đức Nhuận vào thập niên 50 của thế kỷ 20 đã đoạt huy chương vàng với đàn bấu và thu dĩa ở Nga cách đây 60 năm .Việc Trung Quốc muốn « chiếm đoạt » nhạc cụ đàn bầu là của họ là việc họ thường làm với những truyền thống khác như « hát đồng song thanh Mông cổ khoomi » mà họ đã trình UNESCO cho là di sản văn hóa phi vật thể vào năm 2009, làm cho xứ Mông cổ phản đối kịch liệt vì theo truyền thống Mông cổ , kỹ thuật này chỉ phát nguồn từ vùng Tây Bắc của xứ Mông cổ (Folk Republic of Mongolia) chứ không thể có ở Nội Mông như Trung Quốc tuyên bố. Năm 2010 xứ Mông cổ trình hồ sơ hát đồng song thanh khoomii cho UNESCO và được nhìn nhận là của xứ Mông cổ. Một chuyện khác là bản ARIRANG của Hàn Quốc đã bị Trung quốc dự định trình UNESCO để được tuyên dương là di sản văn hóa phi vật thể của Trung quốc vì họ có người Triều Tiên là sắc tộc sống ở Trung quốc . Nhưng ban nghiên cứu xứ Hàn Quốc đã phản ứng kịp thời và tổ chức hội thảo tại Seoul và tôi được mời tham dự hồ sơ này vào năm 2012. Và bản ARIRANG được UNESCO nhìn nhận là của Hàn Quốc vào năm 2014. Đối với việc muốn lấy đàn bầu là nhạc cụ của Trung quốc với lý do là Trung Quốc có một bộ lạc người Kinh sống ở xứ họ . Nhưng việc chuẩn bị để tước lấy đàn bầu đã được nghĩ đến từ lâu. Họ mới gởi nhạc công sang VN học đàn bầu, mời một số nhà nghiên cứu sưu tầm tài liệu để viết về đàn bầu và đưa lên wikipedia để tuyên bố là đàn bầu là nhạc cụ Trung quốc chứ không phải vietnam .
Nếu các ban nghiên cứu của Việt Nam không phản ứng (viện âm nhạc, và những nhà nghiên cứu việt nam không có phản ứng thì không sớm thì muộn nhạc cụ đàn bầu sẽ thuộc quyền « sở hữu » của Trung Quốc đứng về mặt pháp lý .
GS Trần Quang Hải

TRAN QUANG HAI : The ĐÀN ĐỘC HUYỀN – monochord
(from the book MUSIC OF THE WORLD, published by J.M.FUZEAU, Courlay, France, p.298-299, 1994

The DAN DOC HUYEN – monochord
The dàn dôc huyên (dan = instrument, dôc = single, huyên = string) is a zither with only one string, in other words a monochord. It is a box without a base consisting of three planks of wood fro 0m80 to 1m long and 9 to 12cm wide. The sound table is made of ngô đông wood. A flexible bamboo stave with a gourd or empty coconut to act as resonator is fixed to one end of the sound table. A steel string (often a guitar string) with one end attached to the flexible stave is stretched down the whole length of the sound table. The other end is twisted around a peg fixed to the body of the instrument.
To play the instrument, the musician holds a bamboo stick 15cm long in his right hand, beld between his thumb ad fingers like a pencil .
The instrument, held steady by the player’s right foot, is set on the ground in front of hi as he sits cross legged. He strikes the single string with the bamboo stick at very precise points, the sournces of the vibrations (the places are indicated by the division of the string into 2,3,4,5 and 6 equal parts), while the root of the little finger of the hand touches the string and then immediately frees it again. This produces harmonic sounds. The flexibility of the stave fitted with the resonator allows the musician to vary the pith of his playing by pulling the stave to right or left.
The Vietnamese monochord depends for its effect on the exclusive use of harmonic sounds and the varied tension of the single metal string. Its range ay be up to two octaves.
A favourite instrument of the blind musicians who earned their living telling stories of past history in the market place. The monochord was introduced to the court of the NGUYENS (1802-1945), and admitted to the instrumental ensemble of Huế music around the beginning of the 20th century.
The đàn độc huyền monochord can be played solo, as a duet or in an instrumental ensemble performing either traditional music or contemporary music of the European style .
FOLK LEGEND of the ĐÀN ĐỘC HUYỀN or ĐÀN BẦU
A Vietnamese fold legend tells the origin of its creation. TRƯƠNG VIÊN set off for war. Having no news of him, his wife and mother left their native village to search for him . On the road, after the wife hat et with numerous isfortunes (her eyes were put out by a deon, and she had to be her bread) , a goddess, moved by the woman’s courage and self sacrifice, gave her a musical instrument with a signle string whose sounds reminded hearers of the human voice. With this instrument she was able to earn enough money to live on until the day when she was reunited with her husband.

MAI-THU_1968

Họa sĩ MAI THỨ , 1968

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NSND THANH TÂM

xuân hoạch

dan bau

ĐÀN BẦU

phạm đức thành

PHẠM ĐỨC THÀNH

hải phương

HẢI PHƯỢNG

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Documentary released to celebrate IMC Member of Honour Prof. Tran Van Khe

Documentary released to celebrate IMC Member of Honour Prof. Tran Van Khe

khe.jpgPhuong Nam Film will issue a documentary entitled “Tran Van Khe – Inspirer” on July 24 to celebrate Professor Tran Van Khe’s 90th birthday.

On this occasion, the famous professor’s memoirs will also be re-published.

The documentary is directed by Pham Hoang Nam, with script written by Nguyen Thi Minh Ngoc. It is the portrait of Prof. Khe, a talented music researcher, performer and presenter. To read more, click here

http://www.imc-cim.org/news-imc/imc-news/336-documentary-released-to-celebrate-imc-member-of-honour-prof-tran-van-khe.html

TRAN QUANG HAI sings THE ODE TO JOY at SCHÖNBRUNN, VIENNA, 24.09.12

TRAN QUANG HAI sings THE ODE TO JOY at SCHÖNBRUNN, VIENNA, 24.09.12

Published on Sep 30, 2012

TRAN QUANG HAI sings THE ODE TO JOY , excerpted from the 9th Symphony by Ludwig von BEETHOVEN with the overtone singing style in one breath .
Filmed at SCHÖNBRUNN CASTLE , VIENNA, AUSTRIA

The ODE TO JOY with overtone singing style by TRAN QUANG HAI ,october 2010, NIAGARA FALLS, CANADA

The ODE TO JOY with overtone singing style by TRAN QUANG HAI ,october 2010, NIAGARA FALLS, CANADA

Uploaded on Nov 1, 2010

TRAN QUANG HAI sang the Ode to Joy with the use of overtones in one breath at NIAGARA Falls (Canadian Side),on October 21st, 2010

TRAN QUANG HAI sings « the Ode to Joy » in front of the Church Saint Tremeur, Brittany, France, August 2009

TRAN QUANG HAI sings « the Ode to Joy » in front of the Church Saint Tremeur, Brittany, France

Uploaded on Aug 27, 2009

Tran Quang Hai sings « The Ode to Joy » from the 9th Symphony by Beethoven in front of the old church Saint Tremeur, Brittany, France, 21 August 2009

tran quang hai sings the ode to joy in one breath with overtones in CATANIA, ETNA volcano, 10 12 13

tran quang hai sings the ode to joy in one breath with overtones in CATANIA, ETNA volcano, 10 12 13

Published on Dec 11, 2013

tran quang hai sings the ode to joy in one breath with overtones in CATANIA, ETNA volcano, 10 12 13

TRAN QUANG HAI sings « the Ode to Joy » with overtones in Geneva, Switzerland

TRAN QUANG HAI sings « the Ode to Joy » with overtones in Geneva, Switzerland

Uploaded on May 29, 2009

Tran Quang Hai sings with overtones « the Ode to Joy » in Geneva in front of the famous JET D’EAU, Switzerland, on May 28th 2009

TRẦN VĂN KHÊ : Traditional theatre in Viet-Nam (Prof.Tran Van Khe) – Part 1

Traditional theatre in Viet-Nam (Prof.Tran Van Khe) – Part 1

In Viet-Nam the traditional theatre is called hat tuong or hat boi. Hat means to sing. The etymology of the word boi is controversial. At all events, the hat tuong, a term used mainly in the north of Viet-Nam, indicates a form of theatre which was formerly performed at the courts of the kings or emperors of the old Viet country. The word hat boi, used by the inhabitants of southern Viet-Nam, indicates a type of theatre which had its origin in the court theatre but which is tending to become a folktheatre.

The Viet-Namese theatre has more than a little in common with the Chinese theatre but it also differs from it in several ways. The similarities are insufficient to allow us to assert that the Viet-Namese theatre was derived from the Chinese theatre, any more than the differences permit us to maintain that the Viet-Namese theatre has no link with the Chinese theatre. In speaking of the Chinese theatre, moreover, we think mainly of the ching hsi, the sung theatre of Peking, and the points of comparison in this article have been drawn from the ching hsi.

To be completely objective, we must recognize that the Viet-Namese hat tuong or hat boi has been influenced by the Chinese theatre, but it has not sought to copy that pattern slavishly. It has been able to retain and develop its own originality, to adapt the text of the plays, the stage effects and the songs and elocution to the taste of its public. Let us try to go back to its beginnings and to follow its development in a quick historical survey and to see the reaction of the Viet-Namese public to these recent innovations.

According to certain authors, in approximately the twelfth century and under the Ly dynasty, a Chinese Taoist initiated the Viet-Namese into the Chinese theatre art. In the history of the Viet country, the name is recorded of an actor in the Yuan army, Li Yuan Ki (Ly Nguyen Cat in Viet-Namese) who, captured by the soldiers of General Tran Hung Dao, saved his life by teaching the Viet-Namese the songs and dances of the Chinese theatre. The play Tay Vuong Mau (Si Wang Mou, the Queen of the West), performed at the court by Li Yuan Ki and his troupe composed of Viet-Namese actors, was very much appreciated. In the first month of the third year Dai Tri (1360), King Tran Du Ton (1341-69) commanded the princes, dukes and princesses to give theatre performances in competition. The king judged them and rewarded those who gave the best. It appears from these historical documents that the traditional Chinese theatre was introduced into the old Viet country about the end of the thirteenth century, and the first companies of this theatre, which was intended for kings and court dignitaries, were formed early in the fourteenth century.

Other authors are more cautious about the Chinese origin of the traditional theatre. Mich Quang, in particular, throws doubt upon the Chinese origin of the hat tuong on the grounds of differences between the costumes, make-up, theatre properties, songs and dances of the two theatres. It is very probable that a theatre of Viet-Namese tradition existed independently of the theatre of Chinese tradition and that it continues to this day in the hat cheo (folk-theatre of northern Viet-Nam) the origin of which is lost ‘in the mists of time’. It is undeniable, however, that the hat tuong bears the stamp of the Chinese theatre.

In this sphere as in many others, the Viet-Namese people have been able to assimilate notions learned from the Chinese and thus to create an original art, a true combination of foreign contributions and of elements of their own art heritage.

At the beginning of the fifteenth century, performances of hut tuong were still given simply to entertain the court, to enliven banquets and even in connexion with sacrifices. In 1437, during a ceremony in the royal temples, King Le Thai Tong abolished theatrical performances and forbade the playing of music. Historical documents examined recently show that the hat tuong was in favour not only with the court but also among the people during the last period of the Le dynasty (eighteenth century). The hat tuong developed chiefly at the Nguyen court in the south, while in the north the hat a dao (song of female singers) was taken up by the Trinh lords. The emperors of the Nguyen dynasty (1802-1945) were interested in the traditional theatre, as were their ancestors the Nguyen lords. Under the reign of Ninh Manh (182040), the master of ballet and singing in the official troupe was a Chinese actor of the name of Kang Kong Heou (Cang Cung Hau). The Emperor Tu Duc (1847-83) invited scholars to collaborate with him in writing new plays. The Emperor Thanh Thai (1889-1909) was extremely fond of the theatre and did not hesitate himself to take a part in a play. Under the Nguyen dynasty, especially in the reign of Tu Duc, more than 300 actors and actresses were recruited from among the best in the whole country, and plays requiring a large number of actors were produced. Authors such as Dao Tan wrote plays which were considered masterpieces. With regard to the inner meaning and the form of the plays, and the technique and the costumes of the actors, the hat tuong tended to become a little closer to the Chinese theatre.

TRAN VAN KHE 

*** Source: The Performing Arts in Asia – Unesco Paris 1971

(Edited and with introductions by James R. Brandon)

https://www.facebook.com/notes/tran-truongca/traditional-theatre-in-viet-nam-proftran-van-khe-part-1/10207227449705258?pnref=story